At the same time the substantial part of the project can be connected with the most different spheres and areas of design that is defined by the maintenance of welfare problems, but the main thing — opportunities of this or that type of welfare activity to resolve the difficulties and contradictions which arose in the course of activity of the person, social group
According to these purposes and tasks the substantial part of the Integration project is realized within such activities as a coaching over pupils from special schools and boarding schools; the organization of puppet theaters (and performances) where among characters will be both healthy, and "heroes" with physical defects; special training for disabled people (the way out of a conflict situation, communication training, etc.); carrying out lessons of good (education of ability to become into place the person to whom it is bad).
If the basis of study of target and substantial sections of projects of the first type is made by the analysis of welfare problems, the first step of social and pedagogical design — the characteristic of audience of the project (social group or category of the population, an amateur community, etc.).
For example, the project addressed to a family and uniting the parents feeling need for new methods of creative development of the identity of the child can be directed on increase of their pedagogical culture, cooperation educational efforts and opportunities of a family, creation of conditions for an exchange of pedagogical experience, the organization of the bringing-up and developing sociocultural environment.
The preference (and the corresponding logic of development) is given to this type of the target project in case the carrier of welfare problems — quite concrete social group is defined, and at the characteristic of this audience the personal perspective prevails.
In technology of development of projects (especially the second the type very essential is accurate definition of audience of the project and its corresponding characteristic. As shows experiment, process and result of design is much more productive in case we do not interrogate abstract "audience", and initially we know typical problems, requirements and interests of steady social groups and welfare communities, we are able to use this information during the developing and implementation of welfare programs.
— Age. According to this criterion it is possible to allocate the following groups: children; teenagers; youth; people of mature age; elderly people. Priority social groups are children, teenagers, elderly people here.
The interests typical for the personality or social community and shown in emotionally painted attitude of the person towards this or that object, the phenomenon, in awareness of its subjective importance, appeal. Interest — it first of all result and a form of manifestation of informative activity. Conscious interest acts as motive, intention, as the purposeful attitude of the person towards object of his requirements, it reflects the importance and value for the person of this or that subject or the phenomenon of world around, characterizes its activity on mastering by them.
However at this case it must be kept in mind that there are certain interests which are consolidating big groups of people and being in this regard of great social value. Not accounting of these interests can conduct to emergence of social tension, emergence in people of problems which should be solved, sooner or later, including means of welfare activity.
Special support and attention is deserved by target projects which form of realization is this or that form of an amateur community. The matter is that the culture becomes a condition of formation and self-realization of the personality in case his creative activity, internally determined amateur performance becomes a basis of sociocultural behavior of the person. Transfer of social values to the personal is impossible without free amateur performance of the person, his "counter" activity on assimilation of public norms and ideals. Only creative identity guarantees accumulation of cultural values, their development and preservation. And here it is difficult to overestimate a role of an amateur community.
"Reference point" is the audience here. The first step in the general logic of formation of the project — the characteristic of all set of problems (and first of all personal) which carrier is the concrete social group — real or potential audience of the project. Character of personal problems is defined by that they arise in system "the person — Wednesday" — only the solution of such problems does the project social adapting.