Top 10 Tips To Developing Emotional Mastery

Good topics for cambridge speaking Discover how to start essay with ideas

In the cities of developing countries with their disorder building engineering-geological and hydrogeological trouble is even more often noted. It leads to a territory flash, failures, lowering of the territory and some other unsuccessful consequences of ecological property. The reasons of these phenomena are various, but among them strengthening of pressure of economy and the population is allocated for the built-up territory. Important value has also that new settlements are quite often created on adverse sites in the engineering-geological and hydrogeological relations, "climb up" slopes of hills and high mountains (or "go down" to boggy districts).

Growth of urabanizatsionny territories sets an example of Delhi. When developing its master plan of border of a capital zone were defined in a radius of 100 km. But really the radius of borders makes 240 km. The sites of temporary building occupied by immigrants especially quickly grow in this and in other agglomerations in developing countries. Quite often these urban areas keep rural shape. In their limits quite considerable spaces are occupied by farmlands. It is especially typical for the cities of Tropical Africa.

Almost in all developing countries the accruing deterioration of a state of environment in capital and other agglomerations and in the territories adjoining to them is noted. It, in particular, is caused by that in the countries of "the third world" the high territorial binding of the "polluting" industries to the largest and large cities is typical.

- distinctly expressed territorial and property division of urban areas with allocation of areas of accommodation of groups with the high, average, low and minimum income ("a social segregation");

Such urbanization going on the "economic growth without economic development" type (on terminology of some scientists), received the name of "an existence urbanization" or "a consumer urbanization". Many crisis phenomena are inherent in such urbanization. Some of them are connected with a condition of city environment.

The ecological condition of the cities in developing countries is influenced by weakness of a water management and limitation of water supply. It is characteristic that in the majority of them the water consumption on 1 inhabitant is a little bit higher than biologically necessary level. Thus quality of water, as a rule, does not conform to the international standards. It, is frequent, characteristic and for the areas having considerable water resources. Even in Latin America where the water management is at higher level in comparison with other regions of developing countries, only about 2/3 urban populations are provided with water from special networks. But quality of water often low because of various pollution.

In the cities of all developing countries the considerable part of housing stock and especially in suburban settlements of the marginal population, is in very unsatisfactory state. In general on group of developing countries on mass housing construction about 1% of GNP intends. It (in relative expression) is significantly less, than in the industrial countries.

Nature of placement of the population in developing countries and, including, its especially high territorial concentration in the largest cities more and more noticeably interfere with progress of these states. In the answer to the questionnaire of the UN only 6 of 116 developing countries declared that in them placement of the population "is acceptable", 66 states answered that it is "extremely unacceptable", and in 42 states "unacceptably in a varying degree".

By the end of the first quarter of the XXI century the annual growth of urban population in developing countries on one of forecasts of the UN will make about 90 million people. It conducts to absorption by the cities of farmlands. But in the majority of developing countries where it is frequent (especially in Africa the part of urban population goes in for agriculture, the growing shortage of agricultural grounds is especially painfully shown. Such "spread" of the cities also worsens also an ecological condition of the urbanized territories in developing countries.

** In the industrial cities the new round (a new stage) of an urbanization is noted. It is connected with that poor groups of the population are gradually forced out from the central regions of the city. There is their some kind of "dzhentrifikation" (an upclassing. Process of revival and increase of a social and economic role of the central parts of the cities received the name "reurbanization". She did not mention the largest and large cities in developing countries yet.